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By measuring the difference in mitochondrial DNA among many individuals, the age of the common maternal ancestor of humanity was estimated at about 200,000 years.

A problem is that rates of mutation are not known by direct measurement, and are often computed based on assumed evolutionary time scales.

Thus all of these age estimates could be greatly in error.

In fact, many different rates of mutation are quoted by different biologists.

Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam need not have lived at the same time.

As of 2013, estimates for mt-MRCA and Y-MRCA alike are still subject to substantial uncertainty; thus, Y-MRCA has been estimated to have lived during a wide range of times from 180,000 to 581,000 years ago This has led to repeated misrepresentations or misconceptions in journalistic accounts on the topic.

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This material is inherited always from mother to children only.reports that a remote cave on Barrow Island, located off the coast of northwestern Australia, has yielded evidence of human occupation, including charcoal, marine and land animal remains, and other artifacts dating back to more than 50,000 years ago.Researchers from the University of Western Australia, the University of Queensland, the University of Adelaide, the University of Waikato, and Oxford University say the cave served as a hunting shelter between 50,000 and 30,000 years ago, and then became a dwelling for groups of families after about 10,000 years ago.The human mitochondrial molecular clock is the rate at which mutations have been accumulating in the mitochondrial genome of hominids during the course of human evolution.The archeological record of human activity from early periods in human prehistory is relatively limited and its interpretation has been controversial.In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.Mitochondrial Eve lived later than Homo heidelbergensis and the emergence of Homo neanderthalensis, but earlier than the out of Africa migration, Because mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) is almost exclusively passed from mother to offspring without recombination (see the exception at paternal mt DNA transmission), most mt DNA in every living person differs only by the mutations that have occurred over generations in the germ cell mt DNA since the conception of the original "Mitochondrial Eve".Her female contemporaries, though they may have descendants alive today, do not have any alive who have descend in an unbroken female line.Using molecular clock methods in the late 1970s, Allan Wilson, Mark Stoneking, Rebecca L. Brown found that mutation in human mt DNA was unexpectedly fast.In practice the assumption of a single uniform rate is an oversimplification.Though a single mutation rate is often applied, it is often a composite or an average of several different mutation rates.Unlike her biblical namesake, she was not the only living human female of her time.The title of "Mitochondrial Eve" is not permanently fixed to a single individual, but rather shifts forward in time over the course of human history as the Eve maternal mt DNA lineage becomes extinct.Dan Sivilich, president of the group, sent the ball for testing because it bears an impression resembling coarsely woven fabric, suggesting it had hit a person.He later learned the impression was probably made by a corn stalk after the ball was plowed under the surface of the soil.




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